Helicobacter pylori y cáncer gástrico

  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Helicobacter pylori, cáncer gástrico, Colombia.

Resumen

El cáncer gástrico continúa siendo unas de las neoplasias más frecuentes en el mundo con cerca de un millón de nuevos casos y 700.000 muertes por año y en Colombia, de acuerdo a los datos del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, ocupa el primer lugar en incidencia y en mortalidad, datos comparables a países como Costa rica, Perú, Chile, ecuador y Japón entre otros. Siendo el cáncer gástrico una enfermedad de tan alta morbilidad y mortalidad se ha intentado identificar los factores etiológicos asociados a ésta neoplasia. Antes del descubrimiento de Helicobacter pylori, éste se atribuía al estrés, a factores medioambientales usualmente relacionados con el individuo, la dieta y el entorno. Con el descubrimiento en 1983 por Warren y Marshall de Helicobacter pylori, se propuso la etiología infecciosa de esta enfermedad y se ha llegado afirmar que «la infección por Helicobacter pylori es un condición sine qua non para el desarrollo del cáncer gástrico» y que la solución definitiva de esta neoplasia partiría de la erradicación de la bacteria en todos los infectados o en la vacunación de toda la población, principalmente en las zonas de más alto riesgo. En este módulo se analizará la relación de Helicobacter pylori y el cáncer gástrico.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Profesor Titular (R), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

Referencias bibliográficas

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74

Piñeros M, Ferlay J, Murillo R. Incidencia estimada y mortalidad por cáncer en Colombia, 1995-1999. Instituto Nacional de Cancerología 2005; Imprenta Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.

Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2002, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/, based on November 2004 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site 2005..

Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2002. Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. IARC Can- cerBase No. 5, version 2.0. IARCPress, Lyon, 2004.

Hohenberger P, Gretschel S. Gastric cancer. Lancet 2003; 362: 305-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13975-X

Warren J, Marshall B. Unidentified curved baccilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet 1983; 1273-1275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(83)92719-8

Goodwin CS, J.A. A, Chilvers T, Peters M, Collins MD, Sly L, et al. Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov. and Helicobacter mustelae comb. nov., respectively. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989; 39: 397-405. https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-39-4-397

Howden CW. Clinical expressions of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Med 1996; 100: 27S-32S; discussion 32S-34S. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(96)80226-9

Gasbarrini A, Franceschi F, Armuzzi A, Ojetti V, Candelli M, Torre ES, et al. Extradigestive manifestations of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection. Gut 1999; 45 Suppl 1: I9-I12. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.45.2008.i9

Sherman PM, Lin FY. Extradigestive manifestation of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19: 421-424.

Uemura N, Okamoto S, Yamamoto S, Matsumura N, Yamaguchi S, Yamakido M, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 784-789. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa001999

Wotherspoon AC, Ortiz-Hidalgo C, Falzon MR, Isaacson PG. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma. Lancet 1991; 338: 1175-1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)92035-Z

Palmer WL. Carcinoma gástrico. I. Consideraciones clínicas. In: Gastroenterología. Henry Bockus, J. E. Berk, W. S. Haubrich, M. Kalser, J. L. A. Roth and F. Vilardell.1980; I: Salvat Editores, S.A., Barcelona, España. 1005-1057

Genta RM. The gastritis connection: prevention and early detection of gastric neoplasms. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36: S44-49; discussion S61-42. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200305001-00008

Brenner H, Arndt V, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Rothenbacher D. Is Helicobacter pylori infection a necessary condition for noncardia gastric cancer? Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 252-258. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh039

Correa P. Is gastric carcinoma an infectious disease? N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 1170-1171. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110173251611

Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1993; 22: 89-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-8553(21)00265-X

Lynch DA, Axon AT. Helicobacter pylori, gastric cancer and gastric epithelial kinetics: a review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995; 7 Suppl 1: S17-23.

Imrie C, Rowland M, Bourke B, Drumm B. Is Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood a risk factor for gastric cancer? Pediatrics 2001; 107: 373-380. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.2.373

Roderick P, Davies R, Raftery J, Crabbe D, Pearce R, Patel P, et al. Cost-effectiveness of population screening for Helicobacter pylori in preventing gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, using simulation. J Med Screen 2003; 10: 148-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/096914130301000310

Roderick P, Davies R, Raftery J, Crabbe D, Pearce R, Bhandari P, et al. The cost-effectiveness of screening for Helicobacter pylori to reduce mortality and morbidity from gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease: a discrete-event simulation model. Health Technol Assess 2003; 7: 1-86. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta7060

Wong BC, Lam SK, Wong WM, Chen JS, Zheng TT, Feng RE, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication to prevent gastric cancer in a high-risk region of China: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.2.187

Parsonnet J, Forman D. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer--for want of more outcomes. JAMA 2004; 291: 244- 245. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.2.244

Leivo T, Salomaa A, Kosunen TU, Tuominen R, Farkkila M, Linna M, et al. Cost-benefit analysis of Helicobacter pylori screening. Health Policy 2004; 70: 85-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2004.02.004

McColl KE. Screening for early gastric cancer. Gut 2005; 54: 740-742. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2004.058461

Marshall BJ, Windsor HM. The relation of Helicobacter pylori to gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma: pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention. Med Clin North Am 2005; 89: 313-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2004.09.001

Graham DY, Shiotani A. The time to eradicate gastric cancer is now. Gut 2005; 54: 735-738. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2004.056549

Haenszel W. Cancer mortality among the foreign-born in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 1961; 26: 37-132.

Haenszel W. Incidence of and mortality from stomach cancer in the United States. Acta Unio Int Contra Cancrum 1961; 17: 347-364.

Haenszel W, Correa P. Developments in the epidemiology of stomach cancer over the past decade. Cancer Res 1975; 35: 3452- 3459.

Haenszel W, Correa P, Cuello C, Guzman N, Burbano LC, Lores H, et al. Gastric cancer in Colombia. II. Case-control epide- miologic study of precursor lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 1976; 57: 1021-1026. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/57.5.1021

Correa P, Cuello C, Duque E, Burbano LC, Garcia FT, Bolanos O, et al. Gastric cancer in Colombia. III. Natural history of precursor lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 1976; 57: 1027-1035. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/57.5.1027

Cuello C, Correa P, Haenszel W, Gordillo G, Brown C, Archer M, et al. Gastric cancer in Colombia. I. Cancer risk and suspect environmental agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 1976; 57: 1015-1020. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/57.5.1015

Haenszel W, Kurihara M. Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 1968; 40: 43-68.

Haenszel W, Kurihara M, Segi M, Lee RK. Stomach cancer among Japanese in Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 1972; 49: 969- 988.

Stemmermann GN, Nomura A, Mower HF, Mandel M. Gastrointestinal carcinoma in the Japanese of Hawaii: a status report. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1977; 47: 169-172.

Correa P, Haenszel W, Cuello C, Tannenbaum S, Archer M. A model for gastric cancer epidemiology. Lancet 1975; 2: 58- 60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(75)90498-5

Montes G, Cuello C, Correa P, Zarama G, Liuzza G, Zavala D, et al. Sodium intake and gastric cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1985; 109: 42-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01884253

Chen VW, Abu-Elyazeed RR, Zavala DE, Ktsanes VK, Haenszel W, Cuello C, et al. Risk factors of gastric precancerous lesions in a high-risk Colombian population. I. Salt. Nutr Cancer 1990; 13: 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635589009514045

Shimizu N, Kaminishi M, Tatematsu M, Tsuji E, Yoshikawa A, Yamaguchi H, et al. Helicobacter pylori promotes development of pepsinogen-altered pyloric glands, a preneoplastic lesion of glandular stomach of BALB/c mice pretreated with N-methyl-N- nitrosourea. Cancer Lett 1998; 123: 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97)00405-9

Pounder RE, Ng D. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in different countries. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 Suppl 2: 33-39.

Broutet N, Sarasqueta AM, Cantet F, Lethuaire D, Megraud F. Is there a link between the variation in gastric cancer mortality and differences in Helicobacter pylori prevalence in different regions of France? Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1999; 23: 754-760. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(98)80326-0

EUROGAST Study Group. Epidemiology of, and risk factors for, Helicobacter pylori infection among 3194 asymptomatic subjects in 17 populations. Gut 1993; 34: 1672-1676. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.34.12.1672

Everhart JE, Kruszon-Moran D, Perez-Perez GI, Tralka TS, McQuillan G. Seroprevalence and ethnic differences in Helicobacter pylori infection among adults in the United States. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 1359-1363. https://doi.org/10.1086/315384

Kosunen TU, Hook J, Rautelin HI, Myllyla G. Age-dependent increase of Campylobacter pylori antibodies in blood donors. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 110-114. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365528909092247

Berg G, Bode G, Blettner M, Boeing H, Brenner H. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin: A population-based study among 1806 adults in Germany. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 1014-1018. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03686.x

Palli D, Decarli A, Cipriani F, Sitas F, Forman D, Amadori D, et al. Helicobacter pylori antibodies in areas of Italy at varying gastric cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993; 2: 37-40.

Hopkins RJ, Vial PA, Ferreccio C, Ovalle J, Prado P, Sotomayor V, et al. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Chile: vegetables may serve as one route of transmission. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 222-226. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/168.1.222

Joossens JV, Hill MJ, Elliott P, Stamler R, Lesaffre E, Dyer A, et al. Dietary salt, nitrate and stomach cancer mortality in 24 countries. European Cancer Prevention (ECP) and the INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25: 494-504. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/25.3.494

Pérez-Pérez GI, Taylor DN, Bodhidatta L, Wongsrichanalai J, Baze WB, Dunn BE, et al. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in Thailand. J Infect Dis 1990; 161: 1237-1241. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/161.6.1237

Campuzano-Maya G, Hoyos-Castaño D, Calvo-Betancur VD, Suárez-Ramírez OA, Lizcano-Cardona D, Rojas-Arbeláez CA. Prevalencia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en médicos de Medellín, Colombia. in process

Quina MG. Helicobacter pylori: the Portuguese scene. Grupo de Estudo Portugues do Helicobacter pylori (GEPHP). Eur J Cancer Prev 1994; 3 Suppl 2: 65-67. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-199412002-00012

Lindo JF, Lyn-Sue AE, Palmer CJ, Lee MG, Vogel P, Robinson RD. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a Jamaican community. Trop Med Int Health 1999; 4: 862-866. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.1999.00480.x

Holcombe C, Omotara BA, Eldridge J, Jones DM. H. pylori, the most common bacterial infection in Africa: a random serological study. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 28-30.

Malaty HM, Paykov V, Bykova O, Ross A, Graham DP, Anneger JF, et al. Helicobacter pylori and socioeconomic factors in Russia. Helicobacter 1996; 1: 82-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-5378.1996.tb00015.x

Ahmad MM, Rahman M, Rumi AK, Islam S, Huq F, Chowdhury MF, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic population--a pilot serological study in Bangladesh. J Epidemiol 1997; 7: 251-254. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.7.251

Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F, Yarnell JW, Stacey AR, Wald N, et al. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. Bmj 1991; 302: 1302-1305. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.302.6788.1302

Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH, Kato I, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 1132-1136. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110173251604

Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, Chang Y, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 1127-1131. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110173251603

Sipponen P, Kosunen TU, Valle J, Riihela M, Seppala K. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45: 319-323. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.45.4.319

EUROGAST Study Group. An international association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. Lancet 1993; 341: 1359-1362. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)90938-D

Nogueira AM, Ribeiro GM, Rodrigues MA, Queiroz DM, Mendes EN, Rocha GA, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian patients with gastric carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 100: 236-239. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/100.3.236

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Infection with Helicobacter pylori. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 61: 177-240.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hepatitis B viruses. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 59: 54- 164.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hepatitis C viruses. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 59: 165- 221.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Hepatitis D viruses. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 59: 223- 253.

Talley NJ, Zinsmeister AR, Weaver A, DiMagno EP, Carpenter HA, Perez-Perez GI, et al. Gastric adenocarcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83: 1734-1739. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/83.23.1734

Hansson LE, Engstrand L, Nyren O, Evans DJ, Jr., Lindgren A, Bergstrom R, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection: independent risk indicator of gastric adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 1098-1103. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(93)90954-B

Archimandritis A, Bitsikas J, Tjivras M, Anastasakou E, Tsavaris N, Kalogeras D, et al. Non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection. Ital J Gastroenterol 1993; 25: 368-371.

Blaser MJ, Kobayashi K, Cover TL, Cao P, Feurer ID, Perez-Perez GI. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Int J Cancer 1993; 55: 799-802. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910550518

Hu PJ, Mitchell HM, Li YY, Zhou MH, Hazell SL. Association of Helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer and observations on the detection of this bacterium in gastric cancer cases. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1806-1810.

Fukuda H, Saito D, Hayashi S, Hisai H, Ono H, Yoshida S, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection, serum pepsinogen level and gastric cancer: a case-control study in Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1995; 86: 64-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.1995.tb02989.x

Rudi J, Muller M, von Herbay A, Zuna I, Raedsch R, Stremmel W, et al. Lack of association of Helicobacter pylori seropre- valence and gastric cancer in a population with low gastric cancer incidence. Scand J Gastroenterol 1995; 30: 958-963. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365529509096338

Kikuchi S, Wada O, Nakajima T, Nishi T, Kobayashi O, Konishi T, et al. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and gastric carcinoma among young adults. Research Group on Prevention of Gastric Carcinoma among Young Adults. Cancer 1995; 75: 2789-2793. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19950615)75:12<2789::AID-CNCR2820751202>3.0.CO;2-4

Kokkola A, Valle J, Haapiainen R, Sipponen P, Kivilaakso E, Puolakkainen P. Helicobacter pylori infection in young patients with gastric carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 643-647. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365529609009143

Barreto-Zuñiga R, Maruyama M, Kato Y, Aizu K, Ohta H, Takekoshi T, et al. Significance of Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor in gastric cancer: serological and histological studies. J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02934482

Miehlke S, Hackelsberger A, Meining A, von Arnim U, Muller P, Ochsenkuhn T, et al. Histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis is predictive of a high risk of gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer 1997; 73: 837-839. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19971210)73:6<837::AID-IJC12>3.0.CO;2-1

Lin JT, Wang LY, Wang JT, Wang TH, Yang CS, Chen CJ. A nested case-control study on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer risk in a cohort of 9775 men in Taiwan. Anticancer Res 1995; 15: 603-606.

Webb PM, Yu MC, Forman D, Henderson BE, Newell DG, Yuan JM, et al. An apparent lack of association between Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. Int J Cancer 1996; 67: 603-607. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960904)67:5<603::AID-IJC2>3.0.CO;2-Y

Watanabe Y, Kurata JH, Mizuno S, Mukai M, Inokuchi H, Miki K, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. A nested case-control study in a rural area of Japan. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 1383-1387. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018833819860

Siman JH, Forsgren A, Berglund G, Floren CH. Association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma in the city of Malmo, Sweden. A prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 1215-1221. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365529709028150

Ohara S, Kato M, Asaka M, Toyota T. Studies of 13C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan. J Gastroenterol 1998; 33: 6-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009968

Tabata H, Fuchigami T, Kobayashi H, Sakai Y, Nakanishi M, Tomioka K, et al. Helicobacter pylori and mucosal atrophy in patients with gastric cancer: a special study regarding the methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori. Dig Dis Sci 1999; 44: 2027- 2034. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026622418625

Miwa H, Kikuchi S, Ohtaka K, Kobayashi O, Ogihara A, Hojo M, et al. Insufficient diagnostic accuracy of imported serological kits for Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese population. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2000; 36: 95-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0732-8893(99)00143-1

Mégraud F. Comparison of non-invasive tests to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents: Results of a multicenter European study. J Pediatr 2005; 146: 198-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.10.044

Ekström AM, Held M, Hansson LE, Engstrand L, Nyren O. Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer established by CagA immunoblot as a marker of past infection. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 784-791. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2001.27999

Holcombe C. Helicobacter pylori: the African enigma. Gut 1992; 33: 429-431. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.33.4.429

Holcombe C, Kaluba J, Lucas SB. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis in healthy Nigerians. Eur J Epidemiol 1994; 10: 223-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01730375

Holcombe C, Umar H, Lucas SB, Kaluba J. Low incidence of clinically significant gastroduodenal pathology despite a high incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994; 88: 569-571. https://doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(94)90166-X

Agha A, Graham DY. Evidence-based examination of the African enigma in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005; 40: 523-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.07.017

Lunet N, Barros H. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: facing the enigmas. Int J Cancer 2003; 106: 953-960. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11306

Singh K, Ghoshal UC. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer: An Asian enigma. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 1346-1351. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i9.1346

Covacci A, Telford JL, Del Giudice G, Parsonnet J, Rappuoli R. Helicobacter pylori virulence and genetic geography. Science 1999; 284: 1328-1333. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5418.1328

Azuma T, Yamazaki S, Yamakawa A, Ohtani M, Muramatsu A, Suto H, et al. Association between diversity in the Src homo- logy 2 domain--containing tyrosine phosphatase binding site of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein and gastric atrophy and cancer. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 820-827. https://doi.org/10.1086/381782

Konjetzny GE. Zur chirurgishen beureilung der chronischen gastritis. Arch Klin Chirurg 1924; 129: 139-171.

Bodger K, Crabtree JE. Helicobacter pylori and gastric inflammation. Br Med Bull 1998; 54: 139-150. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a011664

Kim DS, Lee MS, Kim YS, Kim DH, Bae JM, Shin MH, et al. Effect modification by vitamin C on the relation between gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori. Eur J Epidemiol 2005; 20: 67-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-004-1027-y

Zhang ZW, Farthing MJ. The roles of vitamin C in Helicobacter pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. Chin J Dig Dis 2005; 6: 53-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1443-9573.2005.00194.x

www.hopkins-gi.org. fecha de acceso: enero 2 de 2006

Ménétrier P. Des polyadénomes gastriques et de leurs rapports avec le cancer de l'estomac. Arch Physiol Norm Pathol 1888; 1:322-336.

Dieulafoy G. Exulceratio simplex. Bull Acad Med 1898; 39: 49-82.

Hitchcock CR, Maclean LD, Sullivan WA. The secretory and clinical aspects of achlorhydria and gastric atrophy as precurors of gastric cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1957; 18: 795-811.

Siurala M, Seppala K. Atrophic gastritis as a possible precursor of gastric carcinoma and pernicious anemia. Results of follow-up examinations. Acta Med Scand 1960 166: 455 -474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0954-6820.1960.tb17401.x

Knekt P, Teppo L, Aromaa A, Rissanen H, Kosunen TU. Helicobacter pylori IgA and IgG antibodies, serum pepsinogen I and the risk of gastric cancer: Changes in the risk with extended follow-up period. Int J Cancer 2006; https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21884

Held M, Engstrand L, Hansson LE, Bergstrom R, Wadstrom T, Nyren O. Is the association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer confined to CagA-positive strains? Helicobacter 2004; 9: 271-277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-4389.2004.00222.x

Enroth H, Kraaz W, Rohan T, Nyren O, Engstrand L. Does the method of Helicobacter pylori detection influence the association with gastric cancer risk? Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 884-890. https://doi.org/10.1080/003655202760230829

Fox JG, Correa P, Taylor NS, Lee A, Otto G, Murphy JC, et al. Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastritis in ferrets. An animal model of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in humans. Gastroenterology 1990; 99: 352-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(90)91016-Y

Fox JG, Otto G, Taylor NS, Rosenblad W, Murphy JC. Helicobacter mustelae-induced gastritis and elevated gastric pH in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Infect Immun 1991; 59: 1875-1880. https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.59.6.1875-1880.1991

Fox JG, Dangler CA, Sager W, Borkowski R, Gliatto JM. Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastric adenocarcinoma in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol 1997; 34: 225-229. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098589703400308

Fox JG, Rogers AB, Ihrig M, Taylor NS, Whary MT, Dockray G, et al. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is gender specific. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 942-950.

Watanabe T, Tada M, Nagai H, Sasaki S, Nakao M. Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer in mongolian gerbils. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 642-648. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70143-X

Honda S, Fujioka T, Tokieda M, Satoh R, Nishizono A, Nasu M. Development of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma in Mongolian gerbils. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 4255-4259.

Zheng Q, Chen XY, Shi Y, Xiao SD. Development of gastric adenocarcinoma in Mongolian gerbils after long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 19: 1192-1198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03469.x

Correa P. Chronic gastritis: a clinico-pathological classification. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 504-509.

Maruta F, Sugiyama A, Ishizone S, Miyagawa S, Ota H, Katsuyama T. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori decreases mucosal alterations linked to gastric carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils. J Gastroenterol 2005; 40: 104-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-004-1501-z

Nozaki K, Shimizu N, Ikehara Y, Inoue M, Tsukamoto T, Inada K, et al. Effect of early eradication on Helicobacter pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils. Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 235-239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2003.tb01426.x

Hahm KB, Song YJ, Oh TY, Lee JS, Surh YJ, Kim YB, et al. Chemoprevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carci- nogenesis in a mouse model: is it possible? J Biochem Mol Biol 2003; 36: 82-94. https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.082

Cai X, Carlson J, Stoicov C, Li H, Wang TC, Houghton J. Helicobacter felis eradication restores normal architecture and inhibits gastric cancer progression in C57BL/6 mice. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 1937-1952. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.02.066

Yu E, Lee HK, Kim HR, Lee MS, Lee I. Acute inflammation of the proliferative zone of gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Pathol Res Pract 1999; 195: 689-697. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0344-0338(99)80060-0

Obst B, Wagner S, Sewing KF, Beil W. Helicobacter pylori causes DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 1111-1115. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/21.6.1111

Wang TC, Dangler CA, Chen D, Goldenring JR, Koh T, Raychowdhury R, et al. Synergistic interaction between hypergastri- nemia and Helicobacter infection in a mouse model of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 36-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(00)70412-4

Hansson LE, Nyren O, Hsing AW, Bergstrom R, Josefsson S, Chow WH, et al. The risk of stomach cancer in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 242-249. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199607253350404

O'Connor F, Buckley M, O'Morain C. Helicobacter pylori: the cancer link. J R Soc Med 1996; 89: 674-678. https://doi.org/10.1177/014107689608901205

Watanabe S, Tsugane S, Yamaguchi N. Etiology. In: Gastric Cancer, T. Sugimura.1997; Oxford University Press, Oxford. 33-51

Stadtländer CT, Waterbor JW. Molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention of gastric cancer. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 2195-2208. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/20.12.2195

Stemmermann G, Haenszel W, Locke F. Epidemiologic pathology of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma among Japanese in Hawaii. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977; 58: 13-20.

Correa P. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process. First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Cancer Res 1992; 52: 6735-6740.

Tsugane S, Tei Y, Takahashi T, Watanabe S, Sugano K. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection. Jpn J Cancer Res 1994; 85: 474-478. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.1994.tb02382.x

Fox JG, Dangler CA, Taylor NS, King A, Koh TJ, Wang TC. High-salt diet induces gastric epithelial hyperplasia and parietal cell loss, and enhances Helicobacter pylori colonization in C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 4823-4828.

Tsugane S, Sasazuki S, Kobayashi M, Sasaki S. Salt and salted food intake and subsequent risk of gastric cancer among middle-aged Japanese men and women. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 128-134. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6601511

Tsugane S. Salt, salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Sci 2005; 96: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00006.x

Shikata K, Kiyohara Y, Kubo M, Yonemoto K, Ninomiya T, Shirota T, et al. A prospective study of dietary salt intake and gastric cancer incidence in a defined Japanese population: The Hisayama study. Int J Cancer 2006;

Nozaki K, Shimizu N, Inada K, Tsukamoto T, Inoue M, Kumagai T, et al. Synergistic promoting effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and high-salt diet on gastric carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils. Jpn J Cancer Res 2002; 93: 1083-1089. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2002.tb01209.x

Bergin IL, Sheppard BJ, Fox JG. Helicobacter pylori infection and high dietary salt independently induce atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in commercially available outbred Mongolian gerbils. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 475-485. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022524313355

Ward MH, Lopez-Carrillo L. Dietary factors and the risk of gastric cancer in Mexico City. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 925- 932. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009736

Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Gallus S, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Levi F, et al. Red meat intake and cancer risk: a study in Italy. Int J Cancer 2000; 86: 425-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000501)86:3<425::AID-IJC19>3.0.CO;2-S

Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, McLaughlin JK, Zheng W, Shu XO, et al. Dietary habits and stomach cancer in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer 1998; 76: 659-664. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980529)76:5<659::AID-IJC8>3.0.CO;2-P

Cornee J, Pobel D, Riboli E, Guyader M, Hemon B. A case-control study of gastric cancer and nutritional factors in Marseille, France. Eur J Epidemiol 1995; 11: 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01719946

Ramon JM, Serra L, Cerdo C, Oromi J. Dietary factors and gastric cancer risk. A case-control study in Spain. Cancer 1993; 71: 1731-1735. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19930301)71:5<1731::AID-CNCR2820710505>3.0.CO;2-X

Bartsch H. N-nitroso compounds and human cancer: where do we stand? IARC Sci Publ 1991; 1-10.

Saracci R. The diet and cancer hypothesis: current trends. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1990; 7: 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02988537

Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Dich J, Hakulinen T. Risk of colorectal and other gastro-intestinal cancers after exposure to nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds: a follow-up study. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 852-856. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990315)80:6<852::AID-IJC9>3.0.CO;2-S

Mowat C, Carswell A, Wirz A, McColl KE. Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 813-822. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(99)70064-8

Van Loon AJ, Botterweck AA, Goldbohm RA, Brants HA, van Klaveren JD, van den Brandt PA. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study. Br J Cancer 1998; 78: 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1998.454

Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH. Gastric cancer among the Japanese in Hawaii. Jpn J Cancer Res 1995; 86: 916- 923. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.1995.tb03001.x

Chow WH, Swanson CA, Lissowska J, Groves FD, Sobin LH, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, et al. Risk of stomach cancer in relation to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Warsaw, Poland. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 871-876. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990611)81:6<871::AID-IJC6>3.0.CO;2-#

Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 340-346. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000201)85:3<340::AID-IJC8>3.0.CO;2-N

Mizoue T, Tokui N, Nishisaka K, Nishisaka S, Ogimoto I, Ikeda M, et al. Prospective study on the relation of cigarette smoking with cancer of the liver and stomach in an endemic region. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29: 232-237. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/29.2.232

Zhang HM, Wakisaka N, Maeda O, Yamamoto T. Vitamin C inhibits the growth of a bacterial risk factor for gastric carcinoma: Helicobacter pylori. Cancer 1997; 80: 1897-1903. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19971115)80:10<1897::AID-CNCR4>3.0.CO;2-L

Botterweck AA, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma: results from a prospective study after 6.3 years of follow-up. Cancer 2000; 88: 737-748. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000215)88:4<737::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-H

Kobayashi M, Kogata M, Yamamura M, Takada H, Hioki K, Yamamoto M. Inhibitory effect of dietary selenium on carcino- genesis in rat glandular stomach induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cancer Res 1986; 46: 2266-2270.

Fernández E, Chatenoud L, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S. Fish consumption and cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.1.85

Ye W, Ekstrom AM, Hansson LE, Bergstrom R, Nyren O. Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type. Int J Cancer 1999; 83: 223-229. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19991008)83:2<223::AID-IJC13>3.0.CO;2-M

Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Adler G. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study. Bmj 1997; 315: 1489-1492. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7121.1489

Luzza F, Imeneo M, Maletta M, Pallone F. Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, and H pylori infection. Alcohol consumption eliminates rather than prevents infection with H pylori. Bmj 1998; 316: 1019; author reply 1020. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7136.1019

Tursi A, Cammarota G, Papa A, Cianci R, Cuoco L, Fedeli G, et al. Effect of adequate alcohol intake, with or without cigarette smoking, on the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection. Hepatogastroenterology 1998; 45: 1892-1895.

Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Adler G. Inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with Helicobacter pylori. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 571-576. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009854

Brenner H, Berg G, Lappus N, Kliebsch U, Bode G, Boeing H. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection: results from the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Epidemiology 1999; 10: 214-218. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199905000-00004

Klontz KC. Does imbibing alcohol protect against enteric pathogens? Epidemiology 1999; 10: 207-209. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199905000-00001

Brenner H, Bode G, Adler G, Hoffmeister A, Koenig W, Rothenbacher D. Alcohol as a gastric disinfectant? The complex relationship between alcohol consumption and current Helicobacter pylori infection. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 209-214. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200103000-00013

Murray LJ, Lane AJ, Harvey IM, Donovan JL, Nair P, Harvey RF. Inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and active Helicobacter pylori infection: the Bristol Helicobacter project. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2750-2755. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.07064.x

Gikas A, Triantafillidis JK, Apostolidis N, Mallas E, Peros G, Androulakis G. Relationship of smoking and coffee and alcohol consumption with seroconversion to Helicobacter pylori: a longitudinal study in hospital workers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 19: 927-933. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2004.03404.x

Kuepper-Nybelen J, Thefeld W, Rothenbacher D, Brenner H. Patterns of alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection: results of a population-based study from Germany among 6545 adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21: 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.02276.x

Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Calle EE, Flanders WD, Heath CW, Jr. Aspirin use and risk of fatal cancer. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 1322-1327.

Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of digestive cancers at sites other than the large bowel. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 119-123.

Zaridze D, Borisova E, Maximovitch D, Chkhikvadze V. Aspirin protects against gastric cancer: results of a case-control study from Moscow, Russia. Int J Cancer 1999; 82: 473-476. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990812)82:4<473::AID-IJC1>3.0.CO;2-K

Langman MJ, Cheng KK, Gilman EA, Lancashire RJ. Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on overall risk of common cancer: case-control study in general practice research database. Bmj 2000; 320: 1642-1646. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7250.1642

Sokoloff B. Predisposition to cancer in the Bonaparte family. Am J Surg Pathol 1938; 40: 673. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(38)90653-1

Zanghieri G, Di Gregorio C, Sacchetti C, Fante R, Sassatelli R, Cannizzo G, et al. Familial occurrence of gastric cancer in the 2-year experience of a population-based registry. Cancer 1990; 66: 2047-2051. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19901101)66:9<2047::AID-CNCR2820660934>3.0.CO;2-G

Palli D, Galli M, Caporaso NE, Cipriani F, Decarli A, Saieva C, et al. Family history and risk of stomach cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994; 3: 15-18.

La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Gentile A. Family history and the risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. Cancer 1992; 70: 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19920701)70:1<50::AID-CNCR2820700109>3.0.CO;2-I

Brenner H, Arndt V, Sturmer T, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Dhom G. Individual and joint contribution of family history and Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of gastric carcinoma. Cancer 2000; 88: 274-279. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000115)88:2<274::AID-CNCR5>3.0.CO;2-9

Zwick A, Munir M, Ryan CK, Gian J, Burt RW, Leppert M, et al. Gastric adenocarcinoma and dysplasia in fundic gland polyps of a patient with attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 659-663. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.1997.v113.pm9247488

Sarre RG, Frost AG, Jagelman DG, Petras RE, Sivak MV, McGannon E. Gastric and duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis: a prospective study of the nature and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal polyps. Gut 1987; 28: 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.28.3.306

Sawada T, Muto T. Familial adenomatous polyposis: should patients undergo surveillance of the upper gastrointestinal tract? Endoscopy 1995; 27: 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1005625

Kawamura A, Adachi K, Takashima T, Katsube T, Yuki M, Kinoshita Y. Helicobacter pylori infection and family history of gastroduodenal diseases in a Japanese population. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 2987-2988. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03217.x

Brenner H, Bode G, Boeing H. Helicobacter pylori infection among offspring of patients with stomach cancer. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(00)70411-2

Niv Y. Family history of gastric cancer: should we test and treat for Helicobacter pylori? J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36: 204- 208. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200303000-00004

Rothenbacher D, Brenner H. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 1927; author reply 1927- 1928. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2004.04.047

Yatsuya H, Toyoshima H, Tamakoshi A, Kikuchi S, Tamakoshi K, Kondo T, et al. Individual and joint impact of family history and Helicobacter pylori infection on the risk of stomach cancer: a nested case-control study. Br J Cancer 2004; 91: 929-934. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602067

Konno M, Fujii N, Yokota S, Sato K, Takahashi M, Sato K, et al. Five-year follow-up study of mother-to-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection detected by a random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting method. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 2246-2250. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.5.2246-2250.2005

Yang YJ, Sheu BS, Lee SC, Yang HB, Wu JJ. Children of Helicobacter pylori-infected dyspeptic mothers are predisposed to H. pylori acquisition with subsequent iron deficiency and growth retardation. Helicobacter 2005; 10: 249-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-5378.2005.00317.x

Weyermann M, Adler G, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D. The mother as source of Helicobacter pylori infection. Epidemiology 2006; 17: xx-xx. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000201257.31155.a0

Van Loon AJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: results from The Netherlands Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52: 166-171. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.52.3.166

Forman D, Kinlen L. Declining incidence of gastric cancer. Bmj 1991; 303: 248-249. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.303.6796.248-c

Howson CP, Hiyama T, Wynder EL. The decline in gastric cancer: epidemiology of an unplanned triumph. Epidemiol Rev 1986; 8: 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a036288

Hansson LE. Risk of stomach cancer in patients with peptic ulcer disease. World J Surg 2000; 24: 315-320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002689910050

Schuman BM, Waldbaum JR, Hiltz SW. Carcinoma of the gastric remnant in a U.S. population. Gastrointest Endosc 1984; 30: 71-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5107(84)72320-0

Caygill CP, Hill MJ, Kirkham JS, Northfield TC. Mortality from gastric cancer following gastric surgery for peptic ulcer. Lancet 1986; 1: 929-931. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(86)91041-X

Viste A, Bjornestad E, Opheim P, Skarstein A, Thunold J, Hartveit F, et al. Risk of carcinoma following gastric operations for benign disease. A historical cohort study of 3470 patients. Lancet 1986; 2: 502-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90368-5

Lundegardh G, Adami HO, Helmick C, Zack M, Meirik O. Stomach cancer after partial gastrectomy for benign ulcer disease. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 195-200. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198807283190402

Antonioli DA. Gastric carcinoma and its precursors. Monogr Pathol 1990; 144-180.

Domellof L, Eriksson S, Janunger KG. Carcinoma and possible precancerous changes of the gastric stump after billroth II resection. Gastroenterology 1977; 73: 462-468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(19)32124-9

Scharschmidt BF. The natural history of hypertrophic gastrophy (Menetrier's disease). Report of a case with 16 year follow-up and review of 120 cases from the literature. Am J Med 1977; 63: 644-652. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(77)90228-5

Wood MG, Bates C, Brown RC, Losowsky MS. Intramucosal carcinoma of the gastric antrum complicating Menetrier's disease. J Clin Pathol 1983; 36: 1071-1075. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.36.9.1071

Bayerdörffer E, Ritter MM, Hatz R, Brooks W, Stolte M. Menetrier's disease and Helicobacter pylori. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 60. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199307013290116

Johnson MI, Spark JI, Ambrose NS, Wyatt JI. Early gastric cancer in a patient with Menetrier's disease, lymphocytic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995; 7: 187-190.

Kawasaki M, Hizawa K, Aoyagi K, Nakamura S, Fujishima M. Menetrier's disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection: resolution of enlarged gastric folds and hypoproteinemia after antibacterial treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 1909-1912.

Badov D, Lambert JR, Finlay M, Balazs ND. Helicobacter pylori as a pathogenic factor in Ménétrier's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 1976-1979. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00347.x

Groisman GM, George J, Berman D, Harpaz N. Resolution of protein-losing hypertrophic lymphocytic gastritis with therapeutic eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1548-1551.

Kaneko T, Akamatsu T, Gotoh A, Shimodaira K, Shimizu T, Kiyosawa K, et al. Remission of Menetrier's disease after a prolonged period with therapeutic eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 272-273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.1999.00816.x

Madsen LG, Taskiran M, Madsen JL, Bytzer P. Menetrier's disease and Helicobacter pylori: normalization of gastrointestinal protein loss after eradication therapy. Dig Dis Sci 1999; 44: 2307-2312. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026673224502

Di Vita G, Patti R, Aragona F, Leo P, Montalto G. Resolution of Menetrier's disease after Helicobacter pylori eradicating therapy. Dig Dis 2001; 19: 179-183. https://doi.org/10.1159/000050675

Hamlin M, Shepherd K, Kennedy M. Resolution of Menetrier's disease after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. N Z Med J 2001; 114: 382-383.

Yoshimura M, Hirai M, Tanaka N, Kasahara Y, Hosokawa O. Remission of severe anemia persisting for over 20 years after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of Ménétrier's disease and atrophic gastritis: Helicobacter pylori as a pathogenic factor in iron-deficiency anemia. Intern Med 2003; 42: 971-977. https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.42.971

Santolaria Piedrafita S, Conde García R, Abascal Agorreta M, Domínguez Torres I, Ducons García J, Guirao Larranaga R, et al. Resolución de la enfermedad de Ménétrier's después de la erradicación de la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 27: 357-361. https://doi.org/10.1157/13062890

Hill AB. The environment and disease: association on causation. Proc Soc Med 1965; 58: 295-300. https://doi.org/10.1177/003591576505800503

Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ. Attempt to fulfil Koch's postulates for pyloric Campylobacter. Med J Aust 1985; 142: 436-439. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.1985.tb113443.x

Rauws EA, Langenberg W, Houthoff HJ, Zanen HC, Tytgat GN. Campylobacter pyloridis-associated chronic active antral gastritis. A prospective study of its prevalence and the effects of antibacterial and antiulcer treatment. Gastroenterology 1988; 94: 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(88)90606-3

Genta RM, Lew GM, Graham DY. Changes in the gastric mucosa following eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Mod Pathol 1993; 6: 281-289.

Wright NA. Gastric carcinogenesis: when is the point of no return? In: Helicobacter pylori. Basic mechanims to clinical cure. 1998, J. N. Hunt and G. N. Tytgat.1998; Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 325-335 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4882-5_35

Dixon MF. Atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. A risk for cancer: Are they reversible? In: Helicobacter pylori. Basic mechanims to clinical cure. 1998, J. N. Hunt and G. N. Tytgat.1998; Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 336-351 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4882-5_36

Uemura N, Mukai T, Okamoto S, Yamaguchi S, Mashiba H, Taniyama K, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on subsequent development of cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 639-642.

van der Hulst RW, van der Ende A, Dekker FW, Ten Kate FJ, Weel JF, Keller JJ, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastritis in relation to cagA: a prospective 1-year follow-up study. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(97)70076-3

Satoh K, Kimura K, Takimoto T, Kihira K. A follow-up study of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 1998; 3: 236-240.

Kyzekova J, Mour J. The effect of eradication therapy on histological changes in the gastric mucosa in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection. Prospective randomized intervention study. Hepatogastroenterology 1999; 46: 2048- 2056.

Correa P, Fontham ET, Bravo JC, Bravo LE, Ruiz B, Zarama G, et al. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 1881-1888. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.23.1881

Moayyedi P, Wason C, Peacock R, Walan A, Bardhan K, Axon AT, et al. Changing patterns of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in long-standing acid suppression. Helicobacter 2000; 5: 206-214. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5378.2000.00032.x

Zerbib F, Lenk C, Sawan B, Cayla R, Broutet N, Carles B, et al. Long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 719-725. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200012070-00001

Blot WJ. Preventing cancer by disrupting progression of precancerous lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 1868-1869. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.23.1868

Kim N, Lim SH, Lee KH, Choi SE, Jung HC, Song IS, et al. Long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on intestinal metaplasia in patients with duodenal and benign gastric ulcers. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45: 1754-1762.

Schenk BE, Kuipers EJ, Nelis GF, Bloemena E, Thijs JC, Snel P, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis during omeprazole therapy. Gut 2000; 46: 615-621. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.46.5.615

Sung JJ, Lin SR, Ching JY, Zhou LY, To KF, Wang RT, et al. Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia one year after cure of H. pylori infection: a prospective, randomized study. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 7-14. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2000.8550

Larkin CJ, Watson P, Sloan JM, Ardill JE, Patterson CC, McCluggage WG, et al. Gastric corpus atrophy following eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 377-382. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200104000-00012

Morales TG, Sampliner RE, Camargo E, Marquis S, Garewal HS, Fennerty MB. Inability to noninvasively diagnose gastric intestinal metaplasia in Hispanics or reverse the lesion with Helicobacter pylori eradication. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001; 32: 400- 404. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200105000-00008

Ohkusa T, Fujiki K, Takashimizu I, Kumagai J, Tanizawa T, Eishi Y, et al. Improvement in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in patients in whom Helicobacter pylori was eradicated. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 380-386. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-134-5-200103060-00010

Annibale B, Di Giulio E, Caruana P, Lahner E, Capurso G, Bordi C, et al. The long-term effects of cure of Helicobacter pylori infection on patients with atrophic body gastritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 1723-1731. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01336.x

Ito M, Haruma K, Kamada T, Mihara M, Kim S, Kitadai Y, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy improves atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: a 5-year prospective study of patients with atrophic gastritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 1449-1456. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01311.x

Kokkola A, Sipponen P, Rautelin H, Harkonen M, Kosunen TU, Haapiainen R, et al. The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradi- cation on the natural course of atrophic gastritis with dysplasia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 515-520. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01214.x

Kuipers EJ, Nelis GF, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Snel P, Goldfain D, Kolkman JJ, et al. Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux oesophagitis treated with long term omeprazole reverses gastritis without exacerbation of reflux disease: results of a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2004; 53: 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.53.1.12

Sepulveda AR. Improvement of gastric atrophy after cure of Helicobacter pylori. What we know, what we don't know, and why care? J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36: 382-384. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200305000-00002

Forbes GM, Warren JR, Glaser ME, Cullen DJ, Marshall BJ, Collins BJ. Long-term follow-up of gastric histology after Helicobacter pylori eradication. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 11: 670-673. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1996.tb00312.x

Maconi G, Lazzaroni M, Sangaletti O, Bargiggia S, Vago L, Porro GB. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric histology, serum gastrin and pepsinogen I levels, and gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 1844-1848.

Haruma K, Mihara M, Okamoto E, Kusunoki H, Hananoki M, Tanaka S, et al. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori increases gastric acidity in patients with atrophic gastritis of the corpus-evaluation of 24-h pH monitoring. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.1999.00459.x

Nardone G, Staibano S, Rocco A, Mezza E, D'Armiento F P, Insabato L, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on cell proliferation, DNA status, and oncogene expression in patients with chronic gastritis. Gut 1999; 44: 789- 799. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.44.6.789

Orihara T, Wakabayashi H, Nakaya A, Fukuta K, Makimoto S, Naganuma K, et al. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric mucosal phospholipid content and its fatty acid composition. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 269-275. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2001.02440.x

Kimura A, Tsuji S, Tsujii M, Sawaoka H, Iijima H, Kawai N, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitrotyrosine in human gastric mucosa before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000; 63: 315-322. https://doi.org/10.1054/plef.2000.0220

Correa P, Haenszel W, Cuello C, Zavala D, Fontham E, Zarama G, et al. Gastric precancerous process in a high risk population: cohort follow-up. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 4737-4740.

Tepes B, Kavcic B, Zaletel LK, Gubina M, Ihan A, Poljak M, et al. Two- to four-year histological follow-up of gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori eradication. J Pathol 1999; 188: 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199905)188:1<24::AID-PATH316>3.0.CO;2-F

Zhou L, Sung JJ, Lin S, Jin Z, Ding S, Huang X, et al. A five-year follow-up study on the pathological changes of gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication. Chin Med J (Engl) 2003; 116: 11-14.

Ley C, Mohar A, Guarner J, Herrera-Goepfert R, Figueroa LS, Halperin D, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication and gastric preneoplastic conditions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 4-10. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-03-0124

Mera R, Fontham ET, Bravo LE, Bravo JC, Piazuelo MB, Camargo MC, et al. Long term follow up of patients treated for Helicobacter pylori infection. Gut 2005; 54: 1536-1540. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.072009

Hildesheim A, Berrington de Gonzalez A. Etiology and prevention of cervical adenocarcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 292-293. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj098

Castellsague X, Diaz M, de Sanjose S, Munoz N, Herrero R, Franceschi S, et al. Worldwide human papillomavirus etiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and its cofactors: implications for screening and prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj067

Jones R, Tait C, Sladen G, Weston-Baker J. A trial of a test-and-treat strategy for Helicobacter pylori positive dyspeptic patients in general practice. Int J Clin Pract 1999; 53: 413-416.

Lassen AT, Pedersen FM, Bytzer P, Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB. Helicobacter pylori test-and-eradicate versus prompt endoscopy for management of dyspeptic patients: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000; 356: 455-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02553-8

Mason J, Axon AT, Forman D, Duffett S, Drummond M, Crocombe W, et al. The cost-effectiveness of population Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment: a Markov model using economic data from a randomized controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 559-568. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01204.x

McColl KE, Murray LS, Gillen D, Walker A, Wirz A, Fletcher J, et al. Randomised trial of endoscopy with testing for Helico- bacter pylori compared with non-invasive H pylori testing alone in the management of dyspepsia. Bmj 2002; 324: 999-1002. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7344.999

Chiba N, Van Zanten SJ, Sinclair P, Ferguson RA, Escobedo S, Grace E. Treating Helicobacter pylori infection in primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia: the Canadian adult dyspepsia empiric treatment-Helicobacter pylori positive (CADET-Hp) randomised controlled trial. Bmj 2002; 324: 1012-1016. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7344.1012

Chiba N, Veldhuyzen Van Zanten SJ, Escobedo S, Grace E, Lee J, Sinclair P, et al. Economic evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the CADET-Hp randomized controlled trial of H. pylori-positive primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 349-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01865.x

Talley NJ, Vakil N, Delaney B, Marshall B, Bytzer P, Engstrand L, et al. Management issues in dyspepsia: current consensus and controversies. Scand J Gastroenterol 2004; 39: 913-918. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365520410003452

Talley NJ, Vakil N, Practice Parameters Committe of the American College of Gastroenterology. Guidelines for the management of dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 2324-2337. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00225.x

Ford AC, Qume M, Moayyedi P, Arents NL, Lassen AT, Logan RF, et al. Helicobacter pylori «test and treat» or endoscopy for managing dyspepsia: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 1838-1844. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.03.004

Moayyedi P, Soo S, Deeks J, Forman D, Mason J, Innes M, et al. Systematic review and economic evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Dyspepsia Review Group. Bmj 2000; 321: 659-664. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7262.659

Lane JA, Murray LJ, Noble S, Egger M, Harvey IM, Donovan JL, et al. Impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on dyspepsia, health resource use, and quality of life in the Bristol helicobacter project: randomised controlled trial. Bmj 2006; 332: 199-204. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38702.662546.55

Ford A, Delaney B, Forman D, Moayyedi P. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; CD003840. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003840.pub2

Walt B, Kerr G. Can eradicating H pylori prevent gastric cancer? Lancet 1998; 351: 887. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)70303-2

Parsonnet J, Harris RA, Hack HM, Owens DK. Modelling cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening to prevent gastric cancer: a mandate for clinical trials. Lancet 1996; 348: 150-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)01501-2

Sonnenberg A, Inadomi JM. Review article: Medical decision models of Helicobacter pylori therapy to prevent gastric cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12 Suppl 1: 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.1998.00001.x

Fendrick AM, Chernew ME, Hirth RA, Bloom BS, Bandekar RR, Scheiman JM. Clinical and economic effects of population- based Helicobacter pylori screening to prevent gastric cancer. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 142-148. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.159.2.142

Harris RA, Owens DK, Witherell H, Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: what are the benefits of screening only for the CagA phenotype of H. pylori? Helicobacter 1999; 4: 69-76. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5378.1999.98057.x

Leodolter A, Naumann M, Malfertheiner P. Prevention of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori eradication. Dig Dis 2004; 22: 313-319. https://doi.org/10.1159/000083592

Hunt RH. Will eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection influence the risk of gastric cancer? Am J Med 2004; 117 Suppl 5A: 86S-91S. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.07.030

Malfertheiner P, Sipponen P, Naumann M, Moayyedi P, Megraud F, Xiao SD, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication has the potential to prevent gastric cancer: A State-of-the-Art Critique. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 2100-2115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.41688.x

Ford AC, Forman D, Bailey AG, Axon AT, Moayyedi P. A community screening program for Helicobacter pylori saves money: 10-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 1910-1917. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.09.016

Ando T, Goto Y, Maeda O, Watanabe O, Ishiguro K, Goto H. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 181-186. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i2.181

Ito M, Tanaka S, Kamada T, Haruma K, Chayama K. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication therapy in gastric carcinogenesis. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 10-16. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i1.10

Caselli M, Ruina M, Alvisi V, Naccarato R, Gasbarrini G, Bianchi Porro G. An Italian consensus on duodenitis and Helicobacter pylori. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 29: 385-386.

Hunt RH. Consensus Statement on Helicobacter pylori infection and its management. Can J Gastroenterol 1997; 11: 548.

Cadranel S, Bontems P, Snyder J. Consensus for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: still searching for a paradigm. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1998; 61: 316-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/030802269806100706

Hunt R, Thomson AB. Canadian Helicobacter pylori consensus conference. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol 1998; 12: 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1155/1998/170180

Lam SK, Talley NJ. Report of the 1997 Asia Pacific Consensus Conference on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 13: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1998.tb00537.x

Canadian Helicobacter Consensus Conference on the Approach to Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. November 20-22, 1998. Can J Gastroenterol 1999; 13: 553-617. https://doi.org/10.1155/1999/934285

Sáinz R, Borda F, Dominguez E, Gisbert JP, Grupo Conferencia Española de Consenso. Conferencia Española de Consenso sobre la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1999; 91: 777-784.

Proceedings of the 2nd National Workshop on Helicobacter pylori: Management recommendations in India. Thrissur, Kerala, February 20, 1999. Indian J Gastroenterol 2000; 19 Suppl 1: S1-40.

Coelho LG, Leon-Barua R, Quigley EM. Latin-American Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection. Latin-American National Gastroenterological Societies affiliated with the Inter-American Association of Gastroenterology (AIGE). Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 2688-2691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03174.x

Gisbert JP, Calvet X, Gomollon F, Sáinz R. Conferencia de consenso. Tratamiento erradicador de Helicobacter pylori. Recom- mendaciones de la Conferencia Española de Consenso. Med Clin (Barc) 2000; 114: 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-7753(00)71237-1

Asaka M, Satoh K, Sugano K, Sugiyama T, Takahashi S, Fukuda Y, et al. Guidelines in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan. Helicobacter 2001; 6: 177-186. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5378.2001.00027.x

Malfertheiner P, Mégraud F, O'Morain C, Hungin AP, Jones R, Axon A, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01169.x

National consensus on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection 2003. Acta Med Indones 2004; 36: 239-241.

Proceedings of the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group Consensus Conference, May 2004. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19: 398-

Coelho LG, Zaterka S. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection]. Arq Gastroenterol 2005; 42: 128-132. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032005000200012

Gisbert JP, Calvet X, Gomollon F, Mones J. Tratamiento de erradicación de Helicobacter pylori. Recommendaciones de la II Conferencia de Consenso Española. Med Clin (Barc) 2005; 125: 301-316. https://doi.org/10.1157/13078424

Hamaguchi K, Ogawa K, Katsube T, Konno S, Aiba M. Does eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduce the risk of carcinogenesis in the residual stomach after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer? Comparison of mucosal lesions in the residual stomach before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2004; 389: 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00423-003-0451-x

Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Festen HP, Jansen JB, Lamers CB, Nelis F, Snel P, et al. Long-term treatment with omeprazole for refractory reflux esophagitis: efficacy and safety. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 161-167. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-121-3-199408010-00001

Kimura K, Satoh K, Ido K, Taniguchi Y, Takimoto T, Takemoto T. Gastritis in the Japanese stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1996; 214: 17-20; discussion 21-13. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365529609094509

Cómo citar
1.
Campuzano Maya G. Helicobacter pylori y cáncer gástrico. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2006 [citado 23 de mayo de 2024];12(1-2):11-45. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratoriocom.biteca.online/index.php/myl/article/view/530
Publicado
2006-01-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

Métricas

QR Code

Algunos artículos similares: